The authors examined 6,438 cost-per-QALY and 543 cost-per-DALY studies published through 2016 using two databases, ...
The authors examined 6,438 cost-per-QALY and 543 cost-per-DALY studies published through 2016 using two databases, the Tufts Medical Center CEA Registry (cost-per-QALY gained studies), and the Global Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (GHCEA) Registry (cost-per-DALY averted studies). Study characteristics that were analyzed included intervention type, sponsor, country, primary disease, and number of CEAs versus disease burden estimates for major conditions. The authors report that cost-per-QALY studies were most often about pharmaceuticals or interventions in high-income countries while cost-per-DALY...
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As governments and other payers struggle with provision of the best possible health outcomes at ...
As governments and other payers struggle with provision of the best possible health outcomes at affordable costs, the field of health economics and outcomes research (HEOR) has experienced rapid growth. The International Society for Pharmacoeconomics Outcomes Research (ISPOR) produced the ISPOR 2019 Top 10 HEOR Trends which serves to outline the top 10 that the Society members identified that will be the most impactful during 2019. Development of this report included a comprehensive review and...
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In the first of two videos on basic epidemiology, Professor David Cutler asks, how do ...
In the first of two videos on basic epidemiology, Professor David Cutler asks, how do we define epidemics and how do we measure them? He defines and differentiates incidence and prevalence and explains how these metrics relate to duration of a disease. Using HIV infection as the illustrative example, he explains how treatment has resulted in a reduction in mortality rates, and therefore an increase in prevalence, despite declining incidence. These basic concepts set the...
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In the second of two videos on basic epidemiology, Professor David Cutler talks about the dynamics of ...
In the second of two videos on basic epidemiology, Professor David Cutler talks about the dynamics of an epidemic. He asks, how do we understand when an infection is going to become an epidemic? How can we predict when it will not? He defines an index case and discusses the properties of transmission and people’s interconnectivity, fundamental drivers of epidemics. He uses a visual schematic to differentiate three groups in the population (e.g., susceptible, infected, and removed...
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In the first of two videos on the economics of the pharmaceutical industry, Professor David ...
In the first of two videos on the economics of the pharmaceutical industry, Professor David Cutler asks students to consider the types of prices that pharmaceutical companies set for their medications, the implications of higher and lower prices, and how to think about this in a global society. He explains basic economic concepts (e.g., demand, supply, marginal cost, willingness to pay, etc.) in an accessible manner using two simple examples. The first case focuses on antiretroviral...
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In the second of two videos on the economics of the pharmaceutical industry, Professor David Cutler ...
In the second of two videos on the economics of the pharmaceutical industry, Professor David Cutler asks students to consider a dynamic context – one in which prices are set to consider both the cost of producing drugs and the costs of investment in R & D to find new drugs. He returns to the relationship between dollars and quantity, but in this case, distinguishes "how many pills to produce" from "how much should the company invest in...
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In this short video, Professor David Cutler introduces a three-video module on basic statistical analysis. ...
In this short video, Professor David Cutler introduces a three-video module on basic statistical analysis. The videos cover (1) the relationship between 2 variables, (2) assessing the importance of the relationship, and (3) differentiating correlation from causation.
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In this first of three videos on basic statistical analysis, Professor David Cutler discusses the relationship ...
In this first of three videos on basic statistical analysis, Professor David Cutler discusses the relationship between two variables using data from a national survey on education and self-reported health. He walks students through the steps of a regression analysis, and the conceptual and mathematical foundation of estimating a regression line. At the conclusion, he reviews the interpretation of the stylized analysis.
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In the second of three videos on basic statistical analysis, Professor David Cutler, moves beyond ...
In the second of three videos on basic statistical analysis, Professor David Cutler, moves beyond summarizing the relationship between two variables to asking if this relationship is "important?" He discussed two dimensions of "importance", the first addressing the substantive question about whether the magnitude of the relationship is meaningful enough or big enough to be important. This second addresses the statistical relationship between the variables and makes up the bulk of the video. In other...
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